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Ciudad Jardin: The Vision of Ebenezer Howard for a Garden City
Ciudad Jardin, or Garden City, is a concept of urban planning that was proposed by Ebenezer Howard, an English social reformer, in his book To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform (1898), later revised as Garden Cities of To-morrow (1902). Howard envisioned a new type of settlement that would combine the advantages of both the city and the country, while avoiding their disadvantages. He proposed that a garden city would be self-contained, surrounded by a green belt of agricultural land, and connected to other garden cities by railways and roads. He also suggested that a garden city would have a balanced population of workers and employers, a cooperative ownership of land and industries, and a democratic governance system.
Howard's idea of the garden city was influenced by various sources, such as the utopian literature of Thomas More and Edward Bellamy, the social experiments of Robert Owen and Charles Fourier, the economic theories of Henry George and Edward Gibbon Wakefield, and the environmental concerns of William Morris and John Ruskin. Howard also drew inspiration from his own experience of living and working in London and Chicago, where he witnessed the problems of overcrowding, pollution, poverty, and social alienation caused by rapid urbanization and industrialization.
Howard's idea of the garden city was widely influential in the urban planning movement of the early 20th century, especially in Europe and Latin America. Several garden cities were built or planned in England, such as Letchworth, Welwyn, Hampstead Garden Suburb, and Milton Keynes. In Germany, the garden city movement was led by Bruno Taut and Martin Wagner, who designed several housing estates in Berlin and Frankfurt. In France, Tony Garnier designed an ideal city plan for Lyon based on Howard's principles. In Spain, Arturo Soria y Mata developed the concept of the linear city, which combined elements of the garden city and the metropolitan city. In Latin America, several garden cities were built or planned in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and Uruguay.
Howard's idea of the garden city also influenced other urban planning models, such as the regional planning of Patrick Geddes and Lewis Mumford, the new towns of Clarence Perry and Ebenezer Steinberg, the neighborhood unit of Clarence Stein and Henry Wright, the satellite towns of Le Corbusier and Josep Lluis Sert, and the ecological cities of Ian McHarg and Richard Register.
Howard's idea of the garden city remains relevant today as a source of inspiration for urban planners who seek to create more sustainable, livable, and equitable communities. Some of the challenges that face contemporary urban development include climate change, resource depletion, social inequality, health issues, and cultural diversity. Howard's vision of a garden city offers a holistic approach that integrates environmental, economic, social, and political aspects of urban life. 061ffe29dd